Following the fall of Rome, Europe became divided into local and regional political and economic entities, each functional largely in isolation from each other.
Most lords under the European feudal system were the descendants of migratory marauders who decided to settle down and oppress a part of the country side full-time, from the comfort of their fort (called a dun in Celdrya).
In my fantasy series, the Celdryan lords are the descendants of the first settlers, who came through a veil from Europe. The only “king” to make the crossing was a tribal king in the Celtic tradition. He claimed all the land he could see, parceled out among his loyal men and then set about the process of surviving in a new world. Over the last 1000 years, the kingdom has grown as the younger sons of lords, accompanied by free farmers and tradesmen, have pushed into new territory, displacing the native Kin and Mountain Folk. The royal family died out a century ago, but the feudal system has remained and people still dream of the True King. The whole series is focused on the search for the One’s True King.
In Europe, kings and princes determined to concentrate power in their own hands. They wanted to be absolute rulers. Some were able to do this in a limited geographical region, while others spread their shadow over vast territories. This concentration reduced the power and authority of the nobility at the local and regional levels, but it didn’t hold. In the 15th and 16th centuries, forces began to reverse this concentration of power.
Mercantilism developed in the emerging nation-states under the kings of France, Spain and Great Britain. They were meant to be a set of economics tools to assist in centralizing political power and control
Different countries followed different paths to mercantilism. The monarchies of Spain and France became nearly absolute within the limitations of the times. In Great Britain, the nobility had a long history of resistance against losing their traditional rights and privileges, so royal power was less concentrated and absolute, but mercantilism still have a vast influence on British society both in England and its colonies.